TIJ1O Expectations



A1. demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental concepts and skills required in the planning and development of a product or service, including the use of a design process and/or other problem-solving processes and techniques;

A2. demonstrate the ability to use a variety of appropriate methods to communicate ideas and solutions;

A3. evaluate products or services in relation to specifications, user requirements, and operating conditions.


A1. Planning and Development

A1.1 describe a design process or other problem-solving process for planning and developing products and/or services (see pp. 16-19);1 

A1.2 describe problem-solving processes and techniques for solving various kinds of problems in different technological areas; 

A1.3 apply correctly the mathematical and scientific concepts and skills required in the planning and development of a product and/or service; 

A1.4 incorporate appropriate technological concepts (e.g., aesthetics, control, environmental sustainability/stewardship, ergonomics, fabrication/building/ creation, function, innovation, material, mechanism, power and energy, safety, structure, systems) in the design, fabrication or delivery, and evaluation of a product or service (see pp. 5-6); 

A1.5 describe the characteristics of a variety of materials used in the fabrication of a product or the delivery of a service (e.g., strength, durability, possible toxicity, lifespan, density, nutritional value, flavour, asepsis) and identify other relevant considerations to be made in relation to those materials (e.g., cost, availability); 

A1.6 demonstrate an understanding of the roles of various team members in a group project (e.g., leader, recorder, timekeeper); 

A1.7 research and describe the development of a Canadian technological innovation or invention (e.g., snowmobile, personal communication device, potato digger, odometer, anti-gravity suit, CPR mannequin, zipper). 

A2. Communication

A2.1 use a variety of appropriate methods to communicate information or ideas and concepts during the planning and production stages of a project (e.g., production plans, scripts, flow charts, storyboards, sketches, technical drawings, recipes, client consultation reports, design briefs); 

A2.2 use correct terminology to identify and describe various processes, tools, and equipment used in creating products or delivering services (e.g., processes: levelling, squaring, formulating, baking, sterilizing, colouring; tools: pruning saw, wire cutter, curling iron; equipment: USB flash drive, tire balancer, camcorder, flat iron, deep fryer, magnifying lamp, ultraviolet sanitizer, solderless breadboard, measuring cup, thermometer); 

A2.3 use metric and imperial units of measurement (e.g., metric: degrees Celsius, joules, micrometres [microns], millimetres, kilohms, L/100 km, tonnes; imperial: degrees Fahrenheit, BTUs, knots, mils, inches, feet, miles per gallon, pounds per square inch, tons) and the abbreviations or symbols associated with them correctly and as appropriate to the task; 

A2.4 describe and use various forms of communication to document the progress and results of the development of a product or service (e.g., tracking sheets, production status reports, a multimedia presentation, a graphic or animated presentation, technical drawings, updates on a website, a blog, technical reports);
A2.5 describe some common applications of information and communications technology in various technological areas (e.g., automotive on-board diagnostics, computers, non-linear video editing, broadband networks, weather reports, online reservation systems, electronic medical alert systems). 

A3. Product or Service Evaluation

A3.1 evaluate a product or service, and processes associated with its development, on the basis of a set of criteria relevant to that product or service (e.g., adherence to specifications, ease of use, attractive appearance, ruggedness, clean joints, acceptable weld bead, uniform colour, adherence to forest management plan, nutritional value); 

A3.2 suggest improvements to a product or service on the basis of a set of criteria relevant to that product or service (e.g., durability, reliability, ease of use, eco-friendliness, appearance, safety, customer satisfaction). 



B1. use problem-solving processes and project-management strategies in the planning and fabrication of a product or delivery of a service;

B2. fabricate products or deliver services, using a variety of resources.


B1. Problem Solving and Project Management

B1.1 apply the steps of a design process or other problem-solving process to plan and develop products and services (e.g., define the problem or challenge, taking into account relevant contextual or background information; gather information [about criteria, materials, constraints]; generate possible solutions, using techniques such as brainstorming; choose the best solution; develop and produce a model or prototype; test the model or prototype; incorporate improvements or redesign and retest; report on results) (see pp. 16-19); 

B1.2 apply the steps and/or techniques of appropriate problem-solving processes and methods (e.g., diagnostics, reverse engineering, trial and error, divide and conquer, parts substitution, extreme cases) to solve a variety of problems in different technological areas (see pp. 16-19); 

B1.3 identify and discuss solutions that have been developed to address key technological problems or meet human needs in various areas of technology (e.g., catalytic converters, CPU heat sinks, solar cells, regenerative brake energy systems, wind turbines, convection ovens, internal defibrillators, scent-free and hypoallergenic products); 

B1.4 use a variety of sources to research technological solutions to specific problems or challenges (e.g., the Internet, reference books, journals or magazines, experts); 

B1.5 demonstrate the ability to work cooperatively in a group environment to solve problems (e.g., share tools, tasks, materials, and resources); 

B1.6 use appropriate communication, time-management, and organizational strategies 
(e.g., active listening, scheduling, flow charts, meal plans) to facilitate the process of developing a product or service. 

B2. Creating Products or Delivering Services

B2.1 use appropriate tools, materials, and equipment (e.g., tools: hammer, chisel, screwdrivers, soldering iron, cheese grater, sieve, seam ripper; pruning shears, hair clipper; materials: wood, aluminum, polystyrene, paper, wax, clay, textiles, electronic components, mulch, hair colour; equipment: drill press, test meter, computer, software, printer, video camera, thermometer, grill, sewing machine, autoclave, curling iron) to create products or deliver services; 

B2.2 make accurate measurements using a variety of tools (e.g., ruler, scale, tape measure, caliper, micrometer, thermometer, measuring cup), in metric or imperial units, as appropriate; 

B2.3 meet all design criteria (e.g., technical requirements, type and quality of materials, appearance, ease of use, safety, timeline, client's expectations) in creating a product or delivering a service; 

B2.4 demonstrate the ability to use, maintain, and store tools and equipment properly and with care. 



C1. demonstrate an awareness of the effects of various technologies on the environment;

C2. demonstrate an awareness of how various technologies affect society, as well as how society influences technological developments.


C1. Technology and the Environment

C1.1 describe how various technologies (e.g., integrated pest management, water purification, mass transit, agricultural technologies, resource extraction) affect the environment, and identify important environmental considerations associated with different areas of technology (e.g., how to deal with ozone-depleting chemicals or hazardous wastes; how to increase opportunities for recycling, conservation, use of sustainable methods or materials); 

C1.2 identify technological solutions that have been designed in response to environmental concerns (e.g., catalytic converter, wind turbines, solar-powered signs, biofuels, non-toxic and hypoallergenic products, recyclable and reusable packaging); 

C1.3 follow proper procedures for the safe storage and disposal of materials and waste products (e.g., keep flammable solvents, paints, and varnishes in non-combustible cabinets; recycle used motor oil). 

C2. Technology and Society

C2.1 describe some of the effects that technological innovations of the past have had on society (e.g., effects on health, on people's ability to travel and communicate, on living standards, on education) and the economy (e.g., creation of new types of jobs, automation of factories); 

C2.2 describe how society is being affected today by various new and emerging technologies (e.g., electronic messaging, Global Positioning System [GPS], wireless access, hybrid vehicles, nanotechnology, biotechnology); 

C2.3 describe economic, ecological, social, and safety considerations facing consumers when they make choices between particular products or services (e.g., natural versus synthetic materials, renewable versus non-renewable resources; inexpensive products created in developing countries versus more costly products created domestically; higher-priced products with additional safety features versus less costly products without them); 

C2.4 demonstrate an understanding of, and respect for, cultural and social diversity as they develop and create various products or services (e.g., prepare foods from various countries around the world, use video or graphic images that are representative of the school population, demonstrate hairstyles from various cultures, compare traditional landscaping styles of different cultures); 

C2.5 describe how social and economic factors influence the development and use of technology (e.g., high fuel prices and safety concerns influence automotive design, rotating blackouts speed the development of energy alternatives, people's desire to be connected with family and friends drives telephone and wireless device design). 



D1. follow safe practices and procedures when using materials, tools, and equipment;

D2. identify careers in various technological fields, and describe the educational requirements for them.


D1. Health and Safety

D1.1 use appropriate personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, safety glasses or goggles, hard-hat, hearing protection, respirator mask); 

D1.2 use the safety features of tools and equipment (e.g., bandsaw guard, stock guides, tire balancer cover) appropriately; 

D1.3 follow proper shop practices, which help protect the safety of workers (e.g., keep work area clean and organized, avoid horseplay); 

D1.4 use appropriate aids (e.g., push stick, feather-board, soldering iron holder) to minimize the risk of injury; 

D1.5 use appropriate strategies to prevent health problems (e.g., follow proper sanitation and sterilization practices; ensure proper ventilation; use proper lifting techniques; follow Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System [WHMIS] and Material Safety Data Sheet [MSDS] guidelines). 

D2. Career Opportunities

D2.1 describe secondary and postsecondary education pathways (i.e., selection of courses, programs, experiential learning opportunities, and other learning opportunities at the secondary and postsecondary levels, including apprenticeship training, certificate programs, college programs, and/or university programs) leading to a variety of careers in technological fields; 

D2.2 use various criteria to assess selected careers in technological fields (e.g., salary, job demand, working conditions, social trends); 

D2.3 identify groups and programs that are available to support students who are interested in pursuing non-traditional career choices in a technology industry (e.g., mentoring programs, virtual networking/support groups, specialized postsecondary programs, relevant trade/industry associations); 

D2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the Essential Skills that are important for success in the technology industries, as identified in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., reading text, writing, document use, computer use, oral communication, numeracy, thinking skills); 

D2.5 demonstrate an understanding of the work habits that are important for success in the technology industries, as identified in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., working safely, teamwork, reliability, organization, working independently, initiative, self-advocacy, customer service); 

D2.6 develop and/or select pieces of work and other materials that provide evidence of their skills and achievements in technology, for inclusion in a portfolio (e.g., Passport to Safety certificate, project photographs, sketches, drawings, skills checklist, work logs).